Wednesday, May 28, 2014

Hail to the hall - Environmental Acoustics

One of our early goals with Smash Hit was to combine audiovisual realism with highly abstract landscapes and environments. A lot of effort was put into making realistic shadows and visuals, and our sound designer spent long hours finding the perfect glass breaking sound. However, without proper acoustics to back up the different environments, the sense of presence simply would be there.

To achieve full control over the audio processing and add environmental effects I needed to do all the mixing myself. Platform dependent solutions like OpenAL and OpenSL cannot be trusted here, because support for environmental effects is device/firmware specific and missing in most mobile implementations. Even it was available it would be virtually impossible to reliably map parameters between OpenSL and OpenAL. As in most cases with multi-platform game development, DIY is the way to go.

Showcasing a few different acoustic environments

Software mixer

Writing a software mixer is quite rewarding – a small, well defined task with a handful operations performed on a large chunk of data, thus very suitable for SIMD optimization. A software mixer is also one of those few subsystems that has, or can have, a real work analogue - the physical audio mixer. I chose a conventional, physical abstraction, so my interface classes are named Mixer, Channel, Effect, etc, but there might better ways to structure it.

The biggest hurdle when writing a software mixer turned out to be the actual mixing. Two samples playing at the same time are added together, but what happens if they both play at maximum volume? The intuitive implementation, and what also happens in the real world is clipping. This is what most real audio programs do. Clipping is a form of distortion, where minimum and maximum audio levels are simply clamped above or below the physical threshold, effectively destroying or reshaping the waveform. In an audio software, you would typically adjust the levels manually in order to avoid clipping, but in games, where audio is interactive this can be really tricky. Say for instance you have a click sound for buttons. If there are no other sounds playing you want the click played back at maximum volume, but if there is music in the background the volume level needs to be lowered. If there is an explosion nearby it needs to be adjusted even further to avoid clipping.

One way to reduce clipping is to transform the output signal in a non-linear fashion, so that it never really reaches the maximum level. This still has the problem that it will affect the result when there is only one sample playing. Hence, when the click is played back in isolation it won't be at maximum volume.

Some people suggest that the output should be averaged in the case of multiple channels. So if there are three sounds, A B C playing at once. You mix them as (A+B+C)/3. This is not a good way to do it, because the formula doesn't know anything about the content of each channel (B and C can for instance be silent, still resulting in A played back at a third of the volume).

What we need is some form of audio compression - an algorithm that compress audio dynamically, based on the current levels. Real audio compressors are pretty advanced, with a sliding window to analyze the current audio content and adjust the levels accordingly. Fortunately there is a "magic formula" that sounds good enough in most cases. I found this solution by Viktor T. Toth: mix=A+B-A*B, but when adapting it to floating point math I realized that a slight modification into: mix=A+B-abs(A)*B is more suitable to better deal with negative numbers. Each channel is added to the mix separately, one at a time, using the following pseudo code:

mix = 0
for each channel C
  mix = mix+C - abs(mix)*C
next

This means that if there is only one channel playing, it will pass unmodified through the mixer. The same applies if there are two channels but one is completely silent. If both channels have the maximum value (1.0), the result will be 1.0, and anything in between will be compressed dynamically. It is definitely not the best or most accurate way to do it, but considering how cheap it is, it sounds amazingly good. I use this for all mixing in Smash Hit, and there are typically 10-20 channels playing simultaneously, so it does handle complex scenarios quite well.


I use three separate mixers in Smash Hit – the HUD mixer, which is used for all button clicks and menu sounds, the gameplay mixer, which represent all 3D sounds, and the music mixer which is used for streaming music. The gameplay mixer has a series of audio effects attached to it to emulate the acoustics of different room types.

Reverb

Given how useful a reverb effect is in game development, it's quite surprising to me how difficult it was to find any implementations or even an explanation online. At a first glance, the reverb effect seems much like a long series of small echoes, but when trying it, the result sounds exactly like that – a long series of small echoes, not the warm, rich acoustics of a big church. If one tries to make the echoes shorter, it turns more and more metallic, like being inside a sewage pipe.

There is a great series of blog posts about digital reverberation by Christian Floisand that contains a lot of the theory and also a practical implementation: Digital reverberation and Algorithmic Reverbs: The Moorer Design.

It uses a series of parallel comb filters passed through all-pass filters in series. The comb filters is basically a short delay line with feedback, representing reflected sounds, while the all-pass filter are used to thicken and diffuse the reflected sound by altering the phase. I don't know enough signal theory to fully understand the all-pass filter, but it works great and implementation is fairly easy.

In addition to the comb filters and all-pass filters I also added a couple of tap-delays (delay line without feedback), representing early reflections on hard surfaces, as well as low-pass filters in each comb filter allowing a great way to control the room characteristics. Christian's article suggest the use of six comb filters, but for performance reasons I cut it down to four. I'm using four tap-delays and two all-pass filter, plus a pre-delay on the entire late reflection network.


All audio is processed in stereo in Smash Hit, so the reverb needs to be processed separately on the left and right channel. I slightly randomize the loop time in the comb filters differently for the left and right channel, which gives the final mix a very nice stereo spread and a much better sense of presence.

In addition to reverb I also implemented a regular echo as well as a low-pass filter. The parameters of these three filters are used to give each room its unique acoustics.

Tuesday, May 13, 2014

Cracking destruction


Smash Hit is a game built entirely around destruction. We knew from the beginning that destruction had to be fully procedural and also 100% reliable. Prefabricated pieces broken the same way every time simply wouldn't be enough for the type of game we wanted to make. The clean art style and consistent materials made breakage easier, since everything that breaks is made out of the same, solid glass material.

Procedural breakage

Physically based breakage is hard. Really hard. I remember NovodeX had some kind of FEM approximation for breakage in the early days of PhysX, but it never worked well and didn't look very convincing. I think for most game scenarios it is also completely overkill, especially for brittle fracture, like glass. I designed the breakage in Smash Hit around one rough simplification – objects always break where they get hit. This is not true in the real world, where tension builds up in the material, and objects tend to break at their weakest spot, but hey, we're not really after accurate breakage here. What we want is breakage that feels right, and looks cool.

In Smash Hit, when a breakable object gets hit, and the exerted impulse is above a certain threshold, I carve out a small volume around the point of impact and break that up into several smaller pieces that become new dynamic objects.


It sounds simple, but looks quite convincing. However, there are a few obstacles to overcome in the implementation:


  • Carving out a piece from a generic object in a robust way
  • Slicing that volume
  • Check for topology changes in the original object. Carving out a piece may cause it to fall apart.

Plane splitting 

Carving out a volume from a generic mesh in a robust way is a really complex geometric problem. Furthermore, since every object in Smash Hit is physically simulated we want the resulting objects to be well-behaved in a physics-friendly format. From a physics point of view, I represent all objects as compounds of convex shapes, so the resulting broken object must also be a collection of convex shapes. Luckily there is one safe way to split up a convex object into two new objects that are also guaranteed to be convex – slicing it with a plane.

So to carve out a piece from the original object, I slice all the convex shapes with five bounding planes, slightly randomized around the point of impact. It will increase the total number of convex shapes used in the original object, but that is inevitable due to the fact we are making the object more concave. It takes a bit of bookkeeping to get the splitting code right, but as long as the plane splitting is robust, so will the overall breakage algorithm.

The carved out piece can be split up into smaller pieces using the same plane-splitting, so all we need is a really fast, reliable plane-splitting method for convex objects.


Robust splitting

The classic problem with plane-splitting is not handling degenerate cases. Say for instance one of the faces coincide with the splitting plane, so that only one edge crosses the plane due to floating point precision. That can easily result in degenerate geometry, non-closed polyhedra or even broken data structures and hard crashes. To avoid that, I start by determining a side for each vertex (above or below the plane) and then base all edge-splitting on that information, hence only split an edge if the corresponding two vertices are on opposite sides of the plane. The split point for each edge is capped to be a certain distance away from both vertices, so that the resulting two shapes are always closed, well-defined and all edges are above a certain length.

I tried quite a few data structures for doing the plane-splitting before finding one that works well in practice. The biggest hurdle was that I needed a way to track vertices through multiple splits in order to keep vertex normals consistent. It might not be visible at a first glance, but vertex normals are used extensively to make nice gradients in the glass rendering and create a certain softness to the material. Recomputing those normals after splitting an object would create a deviation in the material that is very visible to the player. In the end, the half-edge data structure turned out perfect for the job, offering both high performance and very small memory footprint. I even use 16 bit integers instead of pointers to keep the size down.

Tracking topology

After carving out a hole in the object, it needs to be checked for topology changes. Depending on the shape, it might have been split into two or more separate objects. Finding connected components in a series of  inter-connected nodes is classic graph theory. What makes out a connection in this case is wether two shapes are touching face to face. The most elegant way to do this would be to track split faces between shapes and remember the connections, but it takes a lot of bookkeeping. I'm using a more pragmatic approach, where the distance between shapes are measured geometrically. I have earlier on this blog written about the GJK algorithm and how immensely useful it is for all kinds of geometric operations. In this case, we only want to know if two object are within a certain distance of each other. This can be done as a simple overlap test in configuration space, which is extremely fast.

The algorithm for finding connected components goes like this:
Assign each object a unique id
For each object A
  For each object B
    If id[A] and id[B] are different and they are touching
      Replace all id[A] and id[B] with min(id[A], id[B])
  Next
Next

After we're done all shapes with the same id represent the same rigid body. This is obviously not a very fast general algorithm due to cubic complexity, but since the number of shapes in a rigid body is usually within a few dozen it works well in practice. The nice thing about it is the complete lack of state, which simplifies further breakage.


Simulation pipeline

A final word on breakage is the importance of getting the simulation pipeline right. With an off-the-shelf physics engine, contact impulses are typically analyzed after the simulation step to determine if something breaks. This give the impression of unbreakable objects colliding and then artificially split up afterwards. The key to natural looking breakage is to limit the contact forces of a breakable object during the simulation and break them up while preserving some of the motion. There are tricks to mix in some of the pre-break velocity on broken pieces, but I went all in and actually do multiple solves during breakage, so a simulation step typically involves running the following steps:
  1. General collision detection
  2. Run solver with capped impulses on breakable objects
  3. Check if some contacts reached the cap and in that case break objects
  4. Collision detection for new objects
  5. Run the solver again on affected contacts with capped impulses
  6. Repeat from 3
  7. Integrate
This means that objects are created and broken several times during a simulation step before proceeding to integration. I have capped the number of solves per simulation step to three in order to limit performance impact.

This is the first game where I'm giving my low level physics engine a proper work-out. It has been in development on and off for almost four years so it's great to finally see it in action. Good destruction ties very deeply into the simulation pipeline, so it's not ideal to plaster it on top of an existing physics engine.